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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, is a first aid procedure that can be used if someone is having trouble breathing or if their heart has stopped beating. Everyone can learn CPR; you don’t need to be a medical expert to perform it. Knowing CPR could help you save a friend’s or family member’s life. This life-saving skill can be used in numerous situations, especially those for which we are unprepared.
Steps To Perform CPR On Adults
Take the necessary precautions before starting CPR. (Recall each stage’s initial letter by saying “doctor’s ABCD” — DRS ABCD)
D (Danger) – Assure the safety of the victim and everyone else nearby. Don’t put yourself or others in danger.
R (Response) – Keep an eye out for the patient’s tiny replies. Shake their shoulders a little or make an effort to communicate with them.
S (Send For Help) – If there is no response, dial triple zero (000) or ask someone else to dial it. Please don’t leave the patient alone.
A (Airway) – Verify that their mouth and throat are dirt-free. Before tilting the person’s head back and elevating their chin, remove any obvious blockages in the mouth or nose, such as vomit, blood, debris, or loose teeth.
B (Breathing) – Check whether the patient is breathing normally after 10 seconds. Put them in the recovery posture and stay with them if they are breathing normally.
C (CPR) – If they are still not breathing normally, perform CPR. Chest compressions are the most important part of CPR. Start chest compressions as soon as you can after calling for help.
D (Defibrillation) – Attach an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) to the patient if one is available and someone else can bring it. Don’t obtain one if getting one means leaving the victim alone.
The Correct Procedure Of CPR On Adults
CPR can be carried out by two methods. Both approaches may be performed, depending on the patient’s circumstances.
- As you lay the patient on their back, bend down and be close to them.
- The heel of your hand should be placed on the person’s chest in the centre, just below the breastbone. Place your second hand on top of the first, fingers locked.
- Hold your posture above the chest area of the patient.
- Keep your arms straight and apply a third of your body weight (not just your arms) to their chest while keeping your arms straight.
Mouth To Mouth CPR
- You can assist the person in opening their airway by placing one hand on the forehead or top of the head and the other under the chin to tilt the head back.
- Hold the soft part of the nose and pinch it with the index and thumb finger.
- Get the person to open their mouth using your thumb and fingers.
- Put your lips over the patient’s mouth to make a tight seal while breathing.
- Blow steadily into their lips for about a second, looking for a rise in the chest.
- Search for signs of air escape using your senses of hearing and touch. Keep your head inclined and chin up.
- If the person’s chest does not raise, remove any obstructions from the mouth and reevaluate the person’s mouth.
Remember the golden ratio of compressions: 30:2
30 compressions and then two breaths. The ideal condition is to perform five sets of compressions in this ratio every two minutes. If you think that mouth-to-mouth CPR isn’t required in a particular case, then carry out 100-120 compressions every minute.
How Different Is The CPR Procedure For Children Over 1 Year Of Age?
There is no significant difference in the guidelines for performing CPR on children above one year. However, conducting CPR with one or two hands depends on the size of the chest of the child. If the chest is small, it is advisable to perform CPR with one hand.
Steps To Perform CPR On Infants
- Place the infant or child on their back.
- Put two fingers on the centre of the breastbone’s lower half and press down by one-third of the depth of the chest (you may need to use one hand to do CPR, depending on the size of the infant).
- Slowly release the pressure.
- The infant’s head should be slightly tilted back.
- Lift the newborn or infant’s chin up; take care not to put your hands on their throat, as this will prevent mouth-to-mouth breathing from reaching their lungs.
- Breathe in, then place your mouth over the baby’s or infant’s mouth and nose to create a tight seal.
- While waiting for the chest to rise, blow steadily for approximately one second.
- Look at the baby or infant’s chest after the breath and wait for the chest to drop. Look for indicators of air expulsion by listening and feeling.
- Remove any blockage from their lips and nostrils if their chest does not rise.
Under what circumstances can you stop performing CPR
- If the patient recovers and responds by moving, breathing normally, coughing, or talking, put them in a recovery position.
- If you are too exhausted to perform CPR any further.
- When professional medical help has arrived, and they indicate you to stop.
Things To Keep In Mind Regarding The Usage Of Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
- For children over the age of 8, adult AED and pads can be used.
- Paediatric pads and an AED with paediatric capabilities should preferably be available to children under eight. Use the adult AED if these are not accessible.
- On kids younger than one-year-old, an AED should not be used.